How to Fix The Uploaded File Exceeds the upload_max_filesize Directive in php.ini. Error in WordPress

Getting ERROR 

Open Your XAMP Server and Open  php.ini File

The php.ini file is a configuration file for PHP variables. The following steps show you how to edit the php.ini file:

1. Log into your server hosting the WordPress site.

2. Access the Command Line Interface, and enter the following:

cd 3. Use a text editor to open the php.ini file:
sudo nano php.ini

4. Locate the following line:

upload_max_filesize = 100M

5. Replace 100M with a higher value in megabytes. (256 MB for example)

Image shows the location of the line that needs to be edited to increase limit.

This file allows you to configure other settings as well:

  • memory_limit 256M – Sets the max amount of memory a script can use.
  • post_max_size 32M – Sets the max size for the total of the POST body data.
  • max_execution_time 600 – Max time, in seconds, that a script is allowed to run.
  • max_input_time 900 – Max time, in seconds, that a script is allowed to parse input data.

6. Save the file and exit.

Test your file upload in WordPress – the issue with file size is now resolved.

MERN advanced Interview Questions


MERN Stack

MERN stands for MongoDB, Express, React and Node.js. MERN stack is the popular framework for developing web and mobile applications. MongoDB provides database back-end while React is the client-side front-end web framework and express and node are the middleware in the MERN stack. The MERN stack enables fast development of applications which are easy to debug especially using the JSON documents.

Top questions on the MERN stack are provided to boost your skills and knowledge on the MERN stack but easily clear technical interview on the MERN stack.

Q.1How does React work
React creates a virtual DOM. When state changes in a component it firstly runs a "diffing" algorithm, which identifies what has changed in the virtual DOM. The second step is reconciliation, where it updates the DOM with the results of diff.
Q.2What is props in React
Props are inputs to a React component. They are single values or objects containing a set of values that are passed to React Components on creation using a naming convention similar to HTML-tag attributes. i.e, They are data passed down from a parent component to a child component. The primary purpose of props in React is to provide following component functionality: Pass custom data to your React component, Trigger state changes and Use via this.props.reactProp inside component's render() method.
Q.3What Is Replication In MongoDB
Replication is the process of synchronizing data across multiple servers. Replication provides redundancy and increases data availability. With multiple copies of data on different database servers, replication protects a database from the loss of a single server. Replication also allows you to recover from hardware failure and service interruptions.
Q.4What are Higher-Order components
A higher-order component (HOC) is a function that takes a component and returns a new component. Basically, it’s a pattern that is derived from React’s compositional nature We call them as “pure’ components” because they can accept any dynamically provided child component but they won’t modify or copy any behavior from their input components.
Q.5What do you mean by Asynchronous API
All APIs of Node.js library are aynchronous that is non-blocking. It essentially means a Node.js based server never waits for a API to return data. Server moves to next API after calling it and a notification mechanism of Events of Node.js helps server to get response from the previous API call.
Q.6What is Callback Hell
The asynchronous function requires callbacks as a return parameter. When multiple asynchronous functions are chained together then callback hell situation comes up.
Q.7What is Reconciliation
When a component’s props or state change, React decides whether an actual DOM update is necessary by comparing the newly returned element with the previously rendered one. When they are not equal, React will update the DOM. This process is called reconciliation.
Q.8Does Mongodb Support Foreign Key Constraints
No. MongoDB does not support such relationships. The database does not apply any constraints to the system (i.e.: foreign key constraints), so there are no "cascading deletes" or "cascading updates". Basically, in a NoSQL database it is up to you to decide how to organise the data and its relations if there are any.
Q.9How Node prevents blocking code
By providing callback function. Callback function gets called whenever corresponding event triggered.
Q.10How can you achieve transaction and locking in MongoDB
To achieve concepts of transaction and locking in MongoDB, we can use the nesting of documents, also called embedded (or sub) documents. MongoDB supports atomic operations within a single document.
Q.11How does Node.js handle child threads
Node.js, in its essence, is a single thread process. It does not expose child threads and thread management methods to the developer. Technically, Node.js does spawn child threads for certain tasks such as asynchronous I/O, but these run behind the scenes and do not execute any application JavaScript code, nor block the main event loop. If threading support is desired in a Node.js application, there are tools available to enable it, such as the ChildProcess module.
Q.12How to avoid Callback Hell in Node.js
Node.js internally uses a single-threaded event loop to process queued events. But this approach may lead to blocking the entire process if there is a task running longer than expected. Node.js addresses this problem by incorporating callbacks also known as higher-order functions. So whenever a long-running process finishes its execution, it triggers the callback associated. Sometimes, it could lead to complex and unreadable code. More the no. of callbacks, longer the chain of returning callbacks would be. There are four solutions which can address the callback hell problem: Make your program modular, Use async/await mechanism, Use promises mechanism and Use generators
Q.13If Node.js is single threaded then how it handles concurrency
Node provides a single thread to programmers so that code can be written easily and without bottleneck. Node internally uses multiple POSIX threads for various I/O operations such as File, DNS, Network calls etc. When Node gets I/O request it creates or uses a thread to perform that I/O operation and once the operation is done, it pushes the result to the event queue. On each such event, event loop runs and checks the queue and if the execution stack of Node is empty then it adds the queue result to execution stack.
Q.14What are Pure Components
PureComponent is exactly the same as Component except that it handles the shouldComponentUpdate method for you. When props or state changes, PureComponent will do a shallow comparison on both props and state. Component, on the other hand, won’t compare current props and state to next out of the box. Thus, the component will re-render by default whenever shouldComponentUpdate is called.
Q.15What are React Hooks
Hooks are a new addition in React 16.8. They let you use state and other React features without writing a class. With Hooks, you can extract stateful logic from a component so it can be tested independently and reused. Hooks allow you to reuse stateful logic without changing your component hierarchy. This makes it easy to share Hooks among many components or with the community.
Q.16What is Aggregation in MongoDB
Aggregations operations process data records and return computed results. Aggregation operations group values from multiple documents together, and can perform a variety of operations on the grouped data to return a single result. MongoDB provides three ways to perform aggregation: the aggregation pipeline, the map-reduce function and single purpose aggregation methods and commands.
Q.17What is JSX
JSX is a syntax extension to JavaScript and comes with the full power of JavaScript. JSX produces React elements. You can embed any JavaScript expression in JSX by wrapping it in curly braces. After compilation, JSX expressions become regular JavaScript objects. This means that you can use JSX inside of if statements and for loops, assign it to variables, accept it as arguments, and return it from functions:
Q.18What is ReactDOM
It's a top-level React API to render a React element into the DOM, via the ReactDOM.render method.
Q.19What is Sharding in MongoDB
Sharding is a method for storing data across multiple machines. MongoDB uses sharding to support deployments with very large data sets and high throughput operations.
Q.20What is Stream and what are types of Streams available in Node.js
Streams are a collection of data that might not be available all at once and don’t have to fit in memory. Streams provide chunks of data in a continuous manner. It is useful to read a large set of data and process it. There is four fundamental type of streams: Readable, Writeable, Duplex and Transform
Q.21What is prop drilling
When building a React application, there is often the need for a deeply nested component to use data provided by another component that is much higher in the hierarchy. The simplest approach is to simply pass a prop from each component to the next in the hierarchy from the source component to the deeply nested component. This is called prop drilling.
Q.22What is Key
A key is a special string attribute you need to include when creating lists of elements. Keys help React identify which items have changed, are added, or are removed.
Q.23What is a Blocking Code
If application has to wait for some I/O operation in order to complete its execution any further then the code responsible for waiting is known as blocking code.
Q.24What is the difference between ShadowDOM and VirtualDOM
Virtual DOM is about avoiding unnecessary changes to the DOM, which are expensive performance-wise, because changes to the DOM usually cause re-rendering of the page. Virtual DOM also allows to collect several changes to be applied at once, so not every single change causes a re-render, but instead re-rendering only happens once after a set of changes was applied to the DOM. Shadow DOM is mostly about encapsulation of the implementation. A single custom element can implement more-or-less complex logic combined with more-or-less complex DOM. An entire web application of arbitrary complexity can be added to a page by an import and but also simpler reusable and composable components can be implemented as custom elements where the internal representation is hidden in the shadow DOM like .
Q.25What's the Event Loop
The event loop is what allows Node.js to perform non-blocking I/O operations — despite the fact that JavaScript is single-threaded — by offloading operations to the system kernel whenever possible. Every I/O requires a callback - once they are done they are pushed onto the event loop for execution. Since most modern kernels are multi-threaded, they can handle multiple operations executing in the background. When one of these operations completes, the kernel tells Node.js so that the appropriate callback may be added to the poll queue to eventually be executed.
Q.26What's the difference between a "smart" component and a "dumb" component
Smart components manage their state or in a Redux environment are connected to the Redux store. Dumb components are driven completely by their props passed in from their parent and maintain no state of their own.
Q.27What is Mongoose
Mongoose is an Object Document Mapper (ODM), which means that by using Mongoose, you can define objects with a strongly-typed schema that can be further mapped to a MongoDB document. It offers a schema-based solution for modeling application data. Mongoose comes with built-in typecasting, validation, query building, business logic hooks, and many more out-of-the-box features.
Q.28What is REPL In Node.Js
REPL or “Read Eval Print Loop” is a simple program that can accept commands, evaluate them, and prints the results. What REPL does is to create an environment that is similar to a Unix/Linux shell or a Window console, wherein you can enter command and system, and it will respond with the output. Here are the functions that REPL performs: READ (This reads the input provided by the user, parses it into JavaScript data structure, and stores it in the memory.), EVAL (This executes the data structure), PRINT (This prints the outcome generated after evaluating the command.) and LOOP (This loops the above command until the user presses Ctrl+C twice.)
Q.29How to check if an object is an array or not in JavaScript
The best way to find whether an object is instance of a particular class or not using toString method from Object.prototype
Q.30List down the two arguments that async.queue takes as input in Node.js
Task Function and Concurrency Value
Q.31What is the purpose of module.exports in Node.js
This is used to expose functions of a particular module or file to be used elsewhere in the project. This can be used to encapsulate all similar functions in a file which further improves the project structure.
Q.32What is node.js streams
Streams are instances of EventEmitter which can be used to work with streaming data in Node.js. They can be used for handling and manipulating streaming large files(videos, mp3, etc) over the network. They use buffers as their temporary storage.
Q.33What are node.js buffers
In general, buffers is a temporary memory that is mainly used by stream to hold on to some data until consumed. Buffers are introduced with additional use cases than JavaScript’s Unit8Array and are mainly used to represent a fixed-length sequence of bytes. This also supports legacy encodings like ASCII, utf-8, etc. It is a fixed(non-resizable) allocated memory outside the v8.
Q.34Explain the concept of stub in Node.js
Stubs are used in writing tests which are an important part of development. It replaces the whole function which is getting tested.
Q.35What is a thread pool and which library handles it in Node.js
The Thread pool is handled by the libuv library. libuv is a multi-platform C library that provides support for asynchronous I/O-based operations such as file systems, networking, and concurrency.
Q.36How to make node modules available externally
Q.37What is the default scope of Node.js application
Q.38Which module is used to serve static files in Node.js
Q.39What is a Document in MongoDB
A Document in MongoDB is an ordered set of keys with associated values. It is represented by a map, hash, or dictionary.
Q.40What is the Mongo Shell
It is a JavaScript shell that allows interaction with a MongoDB instance from the command line. With that one can perform administrative functions, inspecting an instance, or exploring MongoDB.
Q.41How do you Delete a Document in MongoDB
The CRUD API in MongoDB provides deleteOne and deleteMany for this purpose. Both of these methods take a filter document as their first parameter. The filter specifies a set of criteria to match against in removing documents.
Q.42Explain the process of Sharding.
Sharding is the process of splitting data up across machines. We also use the term “partitioning” sometimes to describe this concept. We can store more data and handle more load without requiring larger or more powerful machines, by putting a subset of data on each machine.
Q.43What is a Replica Set in MongoDB
To keep identical copies of your data on multiple servers, we use replication. It is recommended for all production deployments. Use replication to keep your application running and your data safe, even if something happens to one or more of your servers. Such replication can be created by a replica set with MongoDB. A replica set is a group of servers with one primary, the server taking writes, and multiple secondaries, servers that keep copies of the primary’s data. If the primary crashes, the secondaries can elect a new primary from amongst themselves.
Q.44What is Scaffolding in Express.js
Scaffolding is creating the skeleton structure of application. There are 2 way to do this: Express application generator and Yeoman
Q.45What is routing and how routing works in Express.js
Routing refers to determining how an application responds to a client request to a particular endpoint, which is a URI (or path) and a specific HTTP request method (GET, POST, and so on). Each route can have one or more handler functions, which are executed when the route is matched.
Q.46What is Middleware in Express.js
Middleware is a function that is invoked by the Express routing layer before the final request handler.
Q.47What Function Arguments Are Available To Express.js Route Handlers
The arguments available to an Express.js route handler function are: req (the request object), res (the response object) and next (optional, a function to pass control to one of the subsequent route handlers)
Q.48How Can I Authenticate Users in Express
Authentication is another opinionated area that Express does not venture into. You may use any authentication scheme you wish.
Q.49Which Template Engines Does Express Support
Express supports any template engine that conforms with the (path, locals, callback) signature.
Q.50How Do I Render Plain Html in Express
There’s no need to “render” HTML with the res.render() function. If you have a specific file, use the res.sendFile() function. If you are serving many assets from a directory, use the express.static() middleware function.

MERN Stack consists of FOUR technologies

 MERN Stack consists of FOUR technologies which are:

  • M-ONGODB (Database) : is for preparing document database and is a NoSQL (Non-Structured Query Language ) Database System
  • E-xpress : is used for developing Node.js web framework
  • R-eact : is for developing a client-side JavaScript framework
  • N-ode JS : is for developing the premier JavaScript web server

MERN Stack is a JavaScript Stack which comprises powerful and robust technologies, used to develop scalable master web applications that includes backend, front-end, and database components. MERN Stack is a technology that is a user-friendly full-stack JavaScript framework for building applications and dynamic websites.
The main purpose of using MERN stack is to develop apps using JavaScript only.

MERN Stack consists of FOUR technologies which are:

  • M-ONGODB (Database) : is for preparing document database and is a NoSQL (Non-Structured Query Language ) Database System
  • E-xpress : is used for developing Node.js web framework
  • R-eact : is for developing a client-side JavaScript framework
  • N-ode JS : is for developing the premier JavaScript web server

Top 5 MERN STACK projects to improve your practical understandingπŸš€

1. E-Commerce Website
One of the most popular MERN stack project suggestions for both newbies and experienced developers is an e-commerce website.
This project serves multiple purposes, both vendors and customers.

  • Login/Signup to buy items
  • Browser through and filter products
  • Add/Delete products from cart and wishlist
  • Update their account details
  • Make payment for items purchased, etc.


  • Login to their dashboard
  • perform CRUD operations on products
  • Manage users(customers)
  • Receive and review orders, etc.

Sample Repo πŸ‘‰

2. Realtime Chat APP
A RealTime Chat Application is one of the simplest MERN Stack Applications that enables you to make use of mailing functionalities.
Some common feature of this App includes

  • User Login/Signup
  • Creating Chat rooms
  • Inviting users to chatroom via email
  • Add one-o-one chat with other users

Sample Repo πŸ‘‰

3. Public Blog App
In a Public blog Application, you gain experience on adding privileges to writers on the contents they see on their dashboard as well as controlling that of a super Admin.
Some features of this App includes:

  • Writers login/Signup
  • Perform CRUD operations on Categories
  • Perform CRUD operation on Articles (User right reserved)
  • Manage writers and content on App (Admin right preserved)
  • Like / Comment Articles
  • Follow Writers
  • Browse Writers profiles
  • Filter Articles based on writers, categories, etc. Sample Repo πŸ‘‰ Demo πŸ‘‰

4. Application for Food Delivery
Restaurants and customers should be able to communicate more easily thanks to this app. It must include an Admin Dashboard for Restaurant owners as well as a facing App for customers to order food.
Feature may include:

  • User Login / Signup
  • Add/Remove to/from Cart
  • Checkout order and make payment. (Online or Pay on Delivery)
  • Admin should be able to perform CRUD operation on food etc.

Repo πŸ‘‰
Demo πŸ‘‰

5. Weather App
A Weather APP is one of the most prominent React Apps you can build in a few hours. This basic App gives you exposure on using external API's. It also involves a bit of state management to handle the data.

Some features of this App may include but not limited to:

  • Displaying the weather condition of the user's current location.
  • Search for the weather condition of a particular location.
  • Dynamic rendering of UI to suit weather condition etc.

Sample Repo πŸ‘‰

How to install maven in windows 10


  • A system running Windows.
  • A working Internet connection.
  • Access to an account with administrator privileges.
  • Access to the command prompt.
  • A copy of Java installed and ready to use, with the JAVA_HOME environment variable set up (learn how to set up the JAVA_HOME environment variable in our guide to installing Java on Windows).

How to Install Maven on Windows

Follow the steps outlined below to install Apache Maven on Windows.

Step 1: Download Maven Zip File and Extract

1. Visit the Maven download page and download the version of Maven you want to install. The Files section contains the archives of the latest version. Access earlier versions using the archives link in the Previous Releases section.

2. Click on the appropriate link to download the binary zip archive of the latest version of Maven. As of the time of writing this tutorial, that is version 3.8.4.

3. Since there is no installation process, extract the Maven archive to a directory of your choice once the download is complete. For this tutorial, we are using C:\Program Files\Maven\apache-maven-3.8.4.

Step 2: Add MAVEN_HOME System Variable

1. Open the Start menu and search for environment variables.

2. Click the Edit the system environment variables result.

3. Under the Advanced tab in the System Properties window, click Environment Variables.

4. Click the New button under the System variables section to add a new system environment variable.

5. Enter MAVEN_HOME as the variable name and the path to the Maven directory as the variable value. Click OK to save the new system variable.

Step 3: Add MAVEN_HOME Directory in PATH Variable

1. Select the Path variable under the System variables section in the Environment Variables window. Click the Edit button to edit the variable.

2. Click the New button in the Edit environment variable window.

3. Enter %MAVEN_HOME%\bin in the new field. Click OK to save changes to the Path variable.

Note: Not adding the path to the Maven home directory to the Path variable causes the 'mvn' is not recognized as an internal or external command, operable program or batch file error when using the mvn command.

4. Click OK in the Environment Variables window to save the changes to the system variables.

Step 4: Verify Maven Installation

In the command prompt, use the following command to verify the installation by checking the current version of Maven:

mvn -version

How to Fix The Uploaded File Exceeds the upload_max_filesize Directive in php.ini. Error in WordPress

Getting ERROR  Open Your XAMP Server and Open  php.ini File The  php.ini  file is a configuration file for PHP variables. The following step...

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